Anostomus anostomus, Linnaeus, 1758
Origin:Brazil; Amazonas, upper amazon river and Orinoco river, Venezuela, Guayana, Colombia.
Etymology: anostomus L. : with upstanding mouth.
Synonyms:Salmo anostomus, Leporinus anostomus, Pithecocharax anostomus, Anostomus gronovii, Anostomus salmoneus.
First Eurpean import: Germany, 1924, by W. Eimeke.
Care: Large well planted tanks with good filtration and strong light to generate some algaegrowth. In the natural habitat the fish occur in moderately flowing water, preferably in the slow flowing areas at curves, under the riverbank between grass and other vegetation, where they graze algae from plants and stones. In aquariums the fish will stand between plants and driftwood at the sides of the tank, mostly in areas with tempered light(floating plants). The fish appear to show their best colors at a temperature of around 24 degrees. The fish can be aggressiv towards eachother if kept in small numbers, in larger groups(6-7 and more)aggression is repressed.
Temperature: 22-28 degrees.
Feeding:Algae and microorganisms, flake food and live food(Daphnia, bloodworms, tubifex, small or chopped earthworms). Sometimes soft plants are nibbled, occasional salad leaves are also consumed.
Size:Up to 18 cm, usually smaller in aquariums, up to 13 cm.
Breeding: Unknown, has not been bred in aquariums thusfar. According to Pinter the fish have been bred at large fish farms in the USA and Germany, and also in Moscow using hormone treatments. He also reports that imported fish are predominantly males, which may account for all the failed breeding attempts. In a similar fish from the same habitat, Chilodus punctatus, results have been obtained. If you want to try to breed the fish, peat filtered water, little or no light, and large amounts of food to induce eggs may be the way to try.
Sexual dimorphism: Males more colorfull, females a round belly, males a straight belly. The second photo displays a male, and at the bottom a female is shown.
Additional: There are conflicting reports on the fish's natural occurence. It is also reported(Baensch and Riehl, 1996) that it inhabits the fast flowing parts of the river. However, if a powerhead filter is applied to a tank you will see the fish migrate to the slower flowing parts of the tank, which would contradict this observation.
Picture references:Picture 1+2+3: E. Naus
References: Baensch and Riehl (1996): Aquarium Atlas I; Hoedemann, J. J.(1969): Aquariumvissen encyclopedie 3; Pinter, H. (1975): Handboek voor het kweken van aquariumvissen.
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