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Betta rutilans, Witte & Kottelat, 1991

Origin:Indonesia, Borneo(Kalimantan), Sungei Kepayang, in blackwater swamps.

Etymology: rutilans, refers to the red color.

Synonyms: None sofar.See additional.

First European import: Germany, 1990, simulataneously by Kottelat, and by Baer, Linke and Neugebauer.

Description: A small deep red betta from the tussyae group, white tipped pelvic fins. Irridescent blue spots on the iris.

Care:Species tank, minimum 40 cm, well planted(including floating plants)with dark soil and some driftwood. Slowly flowing soft acidic water, flitration over peat, and a lowered waterlevel(15-25 cm). Adding some boiled oakleaves to te tank will increase the number of hideouts and create a more natural environment for the fish. The fish are very aggressiv to eachother and susceptible to disease if not kept well.

Temperature:23-27

Feeding:Small live food, frozen food is also accepted.

Size:Up to 6 cm. Linke reports 3 cm.

pH: 4-6

Breeding: If kept in a tank as described under care the fish may breed. Best to have only a single pair in a tank, or a male with 2 females. Lots of small live food will induce the female to create eggs. In the natural habitat their diet consists of bloodworm, ostracods, mayflies and mites(Chung, 1994) but in tanks drosophila, daphnia, artemia and grindal worms can be given. Daily 10% waterchanges with RO water, and a slight increase in pH and temperature will induce spawning. Up to 80 eggs are laid, which will hatch in 36-48 hours and the fry will be free swimming after another two days. The parents do not eat the fry, but since the fish are so aggressiv also towards their own growing fry, it's better to remove the parents from the breeding tank. Fry should be fed with infusoria and artemia nauplii in the beginning.

Sexual dimorphism:Hard to notice. Iridescent spots in the males iris can be used maybe, the number of spots is larger. Caudal tail is a bit bigger in males.

Prices:Not available in shops.

Additional:Some of the small red betta species are debatable. It may be that after extensive research in the future B. brownorum, B. livida, B. tussyae and B. rutilans turn out to be type localities of the same species.

Picture references: Picture 1: Henk Grundmeijer

References:

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